Antibiotics are used to treat or prevent some types of bacterial infections. Antibiotics work by killing bacteria or preventing them from spreading, but they are not effective against all of them.
Many mild bacterial infections can clear up on their own without antibiotics. Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections such as colds and flu. Antibiotics are no longer routinely used to treat some diseases. Doctors' advice should be followed as to whether antibiotics are needed. Antibiotic resistance is a huge problem. Using antibiotics when they are not needed may cause them to not be effective in the future when they are actually needed.
Antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial infections in the following situations:
People at high risk of infection may receive antibiotic treatment, known as antibiotic prophylaxis, as a precaution.
Antibiotics should be taken as stated in the package insert or patient information leaflet accompanying the medicine or as instructed by the doctor or pharmacist. Antibiotics can take the form of:
If you forget to take the antibiotic dose, you should consult the patient information leaflet or leaflet supplied with the medicine to learn what to do. If the person is still unsure of what to do, they should consult their family doctor.
In most cases, the missed dose can be taken as soon as remembered and the course of antibiotics can then continue to be used as normal. If it is too soon for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue the regular dosing schedule.
IMPORTANT NOTE: A double dose of antibiotics should not be taken to make up for the missed dose.
If a person accidentally takes an extra dose than recommended, the risk of side effects increases. It is unlikely that an extra dose of antibiotic taken by mistake will cause serious harm to the person, but the possibility of experiencing side effects such as stomach pain, diarrhea and nausea will increase.
If a person accidentally takes more than 1 extra dose of antibiotics, is worried about this situation, or experiences serious side effects, they should contact a doctor or call an emergency call center as soon as possible.
As with any medication, antibiotics can cause some side effects. Most antibiotics cause no problems when used correctly, and serious side effects are rare.
Common side effects of antibiotics include:
Some people may have an allergic reaction to antibiotics, especially penicillins and another type of antibiotics called cephalosporins. Very rarely, this can lead to a significant allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), which is a medical emergency.
In the following cases, an emergency call center should be called or an emergency service should be consulted:
If such symptoms occur, the person may be experiencing a serious allergic reaction and may need emergency treatment in hospital.
Some antibiotics are not suitable for people with certain medical problems or women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. If a person is pregnant or breastfeeding, they should talk to their doctor so that he or she can prescribe the antibiotic that is most appropriate for them. A person should only use antibiotics prescribed for him/her and should never borrow antibiotics from a friend or family member. Some antibiotics do not interact well with alcohol and some other medications, such as birth control pills. The information leaflet that comes with the medicine should be read carefully and the person should discuss any concerns with their pharmacist or doctor.
There are hundreds of different types of antibiotics, but most of them can be classified into 6 groups:
Other antibiotics include; It contains chloramphenicol (used for eye and ear infections), fusidic acid (used for skin and eye infections), nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim (used for urinary tract infections).
Fluoroquinolones can cause severe aches and pains. In very rare cases, fluoroquinolone antibiotics; They can cause disabling, long-term or permanent side effects that affect the joints, muscles and nervous system. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics can cause serious side effects in people who are at risk for heart valve problems. People with the following symptoms should stop taking fluoroquinolone therapy immediately and discuss this with their doctor:
Antibiotics are used to treat or prevent some types of bacterial infections. They are not effective against viral infections such as colds or flu. Antibiotics should only be prescribed to treat appropriate health problems. These problems may include:
Antibiotics may also be recommended for people who are more vulnerable to the harmful effects of infection. This group may include:
Antibiotics may also sometimes be given to prevent an infection rather than treat it. This is called antibiotic prophylaxis. Conditions for which antibiotics are given as preventative treatment include:
If the person is going to undergo surgery that carries a high risk of infection, it is recommended to use antibiotics. For example, antibiotics may be prescribed to people who will have the following surgeries:
The surgeon will request whether the person undergoing surgery needs antibiotics, and this dose of antibiotic will be administered to you in the hospital before your surgery.
Antibiotics may be recommended for a wound that is likely to become infected. This could be, for example, an animal or human bite, or a wound that has come into contact with soil or feces.
Some people are particularly vulnerable to infections, making antibiotics necessary for them. For example:
In some cases; Antibiotics may also be prescribed for people with an infection that recurs, is dangerous, or causes an increased risk of complications. For example:
Antibiotics can sometimes interact with other medications or substances. This means they may have a different effect than expected. A doctor or pharmacist should be consulted to check whether other medicines are safe to take with antibiotics.
Some antibiotics should be taken with food, while others should be taken on an empty stomach. It is always recommended to read the leaflet that comes with the medicine.
It is necessary to avoid drinking alcohol while taking medication or feeling unwell. However, some antibiotics can have side effects such as nausea or dizziness, and these effects may be worse when alcohol is consumed. It is necessary to consult a doctor or pharmacist to make sure whether alcohol should be consumed while taking antibiotics.
It is best to avoid alcohol completely while using these types of antibiotics:
Drinking alcohol along with metronidazole or tinidazole can cause many side effects, such as:
It is best to avoid drinking alcohol if the following antibiotics are being used:
Some antibiotics, such as rifampicin and rifabutin, may reduce the effectiveness of the birth control pill.
If a person has been prescribed rifampicin or rifabutin, they may need to use additional birth control methods, such as condoms, while taking the antibiotic.
It also does not combine well with some antibiotics, some medications, and herbal supplements. In such a case, the person may be prescribed a different antibiotic or told to stop taking certain medications or herbal supplements.
The leaflet that comes with the medicine should always be read and if any medicine or herbal product is used, this information should be shared with the doctor.
Antibiotics are no longer routinely used to treat infections. The reasons for this are:
Health organizations around the world are trying to reduce the use of antibiotics, especially for non-serious health problems.
Antibiotics are no longer routinely used to treat the following conditions:
Overuse of antibiotics in recent years has shown that they have become less effective, and this has led to the emergence of "superbugs". This is a big problem.
The following are types of bacteria that have developed resistance to many different antibiotics:
These types of infections can be serious and difficult to treat. They are also an increasing cause of disability and death worldwide. The biggest concern in this regard is the emergence of new strains of bacteria that cannot be treated with existing antibiotics.