Osteoporosis is a common bone disease. Bone fragility increases due to osteoporosis, which has become an important public health problem, especially with the prolongation of life expectancy. The aspect that makes this disorder, which is generally seen after the age of 45, a social problem, is its connection with fractures. Fractures due to osteoporosis usually occur in the hip, spine and wrist. Osteoporosis may occur due to insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals or excessive consumption of substances such as caffeine, sodium, potassium and alcohol. Osteoporosis treatment can be carried out with different methods. In this sense, methods such as drug therapy and hormone replacement therapy can be applied.
Methods Used in the Treatment of Osteoporosis
In the treatment of osteoporosis; There are several treatment options available to preserve bone density and reduce the risk of fractures. During the treatment applied, the age, health status, needs and lifestyle of the patient are taken into consideration. In this sense, individuals should be provided with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake during treatment. Again, during the treatment of osteoporosis, exercise should be done, smoking and alcohol should be avoided.
Patients who are considered for osteoporosis treatment should be counseled about the risk factors of osteoporosis. Calcium, vitamin D and exercise should be included as part of the treatment. In this sense, 15 minutes of sunbathing a day is enough for the body to create and store vitamin D. Again, before starting the treatment, secondary causes of osteoporosis should be investigated and bone mineral density should be determined from the central region and the vertebral region should be included.
Drugs used for treatment and prevention approved by the FDA; bisphosphonates, estrogens, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, and the RANKL inhibitor denosumab. Bisphosphonates prevent bone resorption. They provide an increase in bone mass and a decrease in fracture events. There are different types of bisphosphonates that can be used weekly and monthly with different efficacy and side effects.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is one of the methods used for the treatment of osteoporosis. The role of HRT in treatment has recently been re-evaluated, according to the results of studies on a large number of women. In addition to hormone replacement therapy, which has positive effects on bone and is also used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms, there are other more effective and non-hormonal treatments used in the treatment of osteoporosis.