It is a disease of the skeletal system that leads to increased bone fragility and the possibility of fractures as a result of low bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure. It affects one in three women and one in five men over the age of 50. It is characterized by low bone mineral density before making any findings. The diagnosis is made according to the measurement of bone mineral density and the presence of fractures obtained using the Dual energy X Ray Absorbsiometry (DEXA) method. DEXA is the most widely used technique in the world and recommended by the World Health Organization as the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Diagnosis and follow-up of the disease can be done with DEXA measurements.
According to the definition made by the World Health Organization; Normal: according to young adults, the bone mineral density or bone mineral content is below 1 standard deviation (t score > or equal -1). Low bone mass (osteopenia): bone mineral density is between -1 and -2.5 standard deviation compared to young adults (t score > -2.5). Osteoporosis: bone mineral density is 2.5 standard deviations or lower than in young adults (t score -2.5 or lower). Built-in osteoporosis: bone mineral density is -2.5 standard deviation or lower than that of young adults, and additionally one or more bone fractures are detected.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE
Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and become prone to breakage. In this disease, both the density and quality of the bones decreased. This disease, in which bone loss progresses quietly, often cannot be noticed without fractures. Osteoporosis, the most common disease of the skeletal system in the world, is seen in women, especially after menopause, but can be seen in men, children, and both sexes in old age. Fractures are most commonly seen in the spine, wrist, hip and upper arm bone near the shoulder and can occur after a slight fall or impact. The shortening of height that occurs in patients with osteoporosis is also an important clue in identifying the disease. The most serious osteoporosis fracture is a hip fracture, which occurs in older people and is seriously life-threatening. In osteoporosis, back pain, posture disorders, increased risk of falls, fractures that occur, as well as the quality of life and life expectancy of patients are also negatively affected and require significant health expenses. As with many diseases and genetic predisposition in the development of osteoporosis is important in terms of bone health and hormonal factors, improper diet, unhealthy living conditions, various diseases and medications that affect bone health, physical activity and lack of exercise are also factors such as the emergence of the disease in importance. As age progresses, the risk of osteoporosis increases, especially in women over the age of 65 and men over the age of 70. In women, low estrogen, low testosterone levels in men, low body weight, smoking, drinking, or smoking in the past, a history of first-degree relatives and the presence of osteoporosis in the presence of severe disease, including the use of some drugs or cortisone leads to osteoporosis.