While it is known that diabetes has increased more than ever before in the last thirty years, the similar increase in diabetes and obesity in the same years clearly reveals the relationship between these two diseases. Although insulin injections and synthetic drugs have been developed for the treatment of diabetes, studies show that the success rate of drug therapy is below 20%. In this respect, it is necessary to be aware of the relationship between obesity and diabetes and to draw attention to the similarity of treatment methods. Although metabolic surgery is a method developed for the treatment of obesity, it is also applied in the treatment of diabetes. With this surgical method, it is possible to eliminate the hormonal imbalance that causes obesity and diabetes.
What is Metabolic Surgery?
In order to understand the concept of metabolic surgery, it is necessary to be able to define the metabolic syndrome. Diseases such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol metabolism that develop due to body fat, cholesterol ratio and hormonal irregularity, and organ damage associated with these diseases are clustered as metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular diseases also have an important place among the risks and consequences of metabolic syndromes. The intervention to correct the factors causing the syndrome is defined as metabolic surgery. Metabolic syndromes can lead to many diseases that can cause death. If other treatment methods have not worked, it may be necessary to intervene with metabolic surgery.
The Importance of Metabolic Surgery in the Treatment of Obesity
Although diet and exercise are necessary in the treatment of obesity, in some cases they may not be enough to get the desired result. Obesity is a disease that develops due to metabolic causes.
People with a body mass index over 30 are defined as obese. Therefore, after investigating the causes of obesity, if it is determined that it is caused by metabolic syndromes, metabolic surgery should be used for treatment. Obesity treatment is a long and patient process. In the meantime, in order to get results, the factors that cause obesity must be controlled. It is possible to restrict food intake and control the factors that cause weight gain with gastric band and sleeve gastrectomy surgeries applied within the scope of metabolic surgery. Metabolic surgery greatly reduces not only excessive weight gain, but also other discomforts and symptoms caused by obesity. The surgery applied in the treatment of diabetes has also been developed by taking the example of obesity surgery.
To Whom Is Metabolic Surgery Applied?
Surgical intervention is not the first method of choice in the treatment of obesity. First of all, a treatment process consisting of diet, exercise and medication is required. If this process does not give the desired result, if the patient cannot get rid of the excess weight in his body or regains the lost weight in a short time, then metabolic surgery can be decided. However, some measurements should be made in the patient before the application. Those with a body mass index above 40 kg/m are called morbidly obese. In order for metabolic surgery to be applied, the person must be in this class. In order to perform the surgery, the diagnosis must be made definitively and it must be determined that the patient did not get results despite applying other treatment methods. If diseases such as sleep apnea, high cholesterol, fatty liver, calcification, diabetes, high blood pressure have developed along with weight problems, metabolic surgery will be required.
Metabolic Surgery for Diabetes
Metabolic surgery is also a method used in the treatment of diabetes. As stated, the surgical method applied for diabetes was developed by taking the example of bariatric surgery. However, the method is not exactly the same. Metabolic surgery criteria for diabetes are similar to obesity. In order for surgery to be performed, treatment methods such as diet and exercise should be applied and the desired results should not be obtained. In addition, the patient must have had an obesity problem for at least 3 years and have been applying the given diet and exercises for 6 months. On the other hand, this surgery should not be performed in patients outside the 18-65 age range. The psychology of the patient is also considered an important factor in practice. In order for the treatment to be effective, a healthy diet will need to be adopted in the post-operative period. Therefore, this surgery should not be performed in patients who have alcohol, drug and substance abuse problems or who are not psychologically ready to diet. During this period, the patient may need therapy.
Which Methods Are Used in Obesity Surgery?
In order to stop the development of obesity and reverse the weight gain process, it is necessary to reduce food absorption and bring the hormone secretion to a level that helps to lose weight. For this, sleeve gastrectomy and bypass surgeries are applied. Gastric sleeve surgery, easier to apply.